Cities of Repetition

Hong Kong's Private Housing Estates


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SpecificationsSKU: 90632Size: 9.45″ x 7.25″ (portrait) Pages: 260 Binding: softbound Publication Date: Publication date pending ISBN: 978-1-939621-65-8 World Rights: Available

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Cities of Repetition provides a comprehensive graphic documentation and analysis of the largest Hong Kong housing estates built by private developers from the late 1960’s through the early 2000’s. The original drawings and diagrams illustrate and compare the ultra-dense, mass-produced, highly repetitive built environments in which hundreds of thousands of Hong Kong residents live. Drawings, diagrams and photographs not only display the immense scale of the housing estates within the city, but also present the hundreds of similarly planned housing units and their subtle differences. Detailed diagrams compare statistical information to show how the planning of these massive estates has evolved over the past decades to efficiently conform to building regulations. The publication and larger research project present a comprehensive analysis of the architectural and spatial realities of some of the most densely populated, urban environments ever built.
While there are many positive aspects of Hong Kong’s housing estates, including remarkable urban density and economic viability for production, new building codes that allow for and encourage variation and heterogeneity for mass housing developments, must be developed and implemented if cities of the future are to provide humane and diverse modes of housing.

Christian J. Lange is a registered German architect and Assistant Professor of Architecture at the University of Hong Kong. He received his Master’s of Science in Advanced Architectural Design from Columbia University and his Diploma in Architecture from the HTWK in Leipzig.
Jason F. Carlow (Associate AIA) is an Assistant Professor at the American University of Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates.  He holds a B.A. in Visual and Environmental Studies from Harvard University and a Master of Architecture from Yale University.
Cole Roskam is an Associate Professor of Architectural History at the University of Hong Kong. He holds a B.A. in Architectural Studies from Connecticut College and an A.M. and Ph.D. in History of Art and Architecture from Harvard University.


9.45" x 7.25" (portrait)





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